Atoll Reef Geomorphology of Sagori Island, SE Sulawesi: A Reconnaissance Study

Tubagus Solihuddin


DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.3.181-191

The Sagori Atoll of the Kabaena Island, SE Sulawesi is one of Indonesia’s remote tropical reefs and such has received little attention from reef researchers. Non of early scientific expeditions reported either geomorphology or ecology of the Sagori Atoll in detail. This study is the first investigation of the reef geomorphology and associated habitats of Sagori Atoll within a biodiversity of “Coral reef Triangle Initiative - CTI” region, using data from satellite imagery and on ground observation. The Sagori Atoll environment consists of reef-island, atoll rim, and lagoon in which six habitats are associated, including: sand cay, coralgal pavement, sand sheet (intertidal and subtidal), sand-hardground striation, and outer atoll rim and lagoon (shallow and deep). The reef-island is built from sediments that are entirely calcareous, resting on a platform of lithified coral conglomerate. The atoll rim is dominated by coralgal pavement consisting mainly of both encrusting and living coralline algae. The lagoon which is a semi-enclosed pool and opens to the eastern side, consists of sand and scattered corals. The atoll formation is considered to be of nonvolcanic origin, but is rising from the depth of due to anticlinal island subsidence.


Sagori; atoll; reef; geomorphology; habitats


Andréfouët, S. F., Muller-Karger., 2006. Global assessment of modern coral reef extent and diversity for regional science and management applications: a view from space. Proceedings of 10th International Coral Reef Symposium, Okinawa, Japan, 28 June-32nd July 2004, Japanese Coral Reef Society.

Bak, R. P. M. and Povel, G. D. E., 1989. Ecological variables, including physiognomic-structural attributes, and classification of Indonesian coral reefs. Neth. J. Sea Res. 23(2): 95-106.

Best, M. B., Hoeksema, B. W., Woka, W., Moll, H., Suharsono, Sutarna, I. N., 1989. Recent scleractinian coral species collected during the Snellius-II Expidition in eastern Indonesia. Neth. J. Sea Res. 23(2): 107-115.

Collen, J. D., and Garton, D. W., 2004. Larger foraminifera and sedimentation around Fongafale Island, Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu. Coral Reefs, 23, 445–454.

Darwin, C., 1842. The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. Smith Elder and Company London.

Fujita, K., Osawa, Y., Kayanne, H., Ide, Y., and Yamano, H., 2009. Distribution and sediment production of large benthic foraminifers on reef flats of the Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands. Coral Reefs, 28, 29–45.

Guilcher, A., 1988. Coral Reef Geomorphology. New York: John Willey and Sons.

Hamilton, W., 1979. Tectonics of the Indonesian Region. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1078. United States.

Harris, P. M., Vlaswinkel, B., 2008. Modern isolated carbonate platforms: templates for quantifying facies attributes of hydrocarbon reservoirs. In: Lukasik, J., Simo, T. (Eds.), Controls on Carbonate Platform and Reef Development. SEPM Special Publication, 89, pp. 323–341.

Kaczmarek, S. E., Hicks, M. K., Fullmer, S. M., Steffen, K. L., Bachtel, S. L., 2010. Mapping facies distributions on modern carbonate platforms through integration of multispectral Landsat data, statistics-based unsupervised classifications, and surface sediment data. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 94, 1581–1606.

Koswara, A., Sukarna, D., 1994. Geology of the Tukang Besi Sheet, Sulawesi. Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung, Indonesia (14 pp. and map).

Kuenen, Ph. H., 1933a. Geology of coral reefs. The Snellius Expedition in the eastern part of the Netherlands East Indies 1929–1930. Vol. V, 1–129.

Kuenen, Ph. H., 1933b. The formation of the atolls in the Toekang-Besi-group by subsidence. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen., Amsterdam 36(3), 331–336.

Kuenen, Ph. H., 1947. Two problems of marine geology: atolls and canyons. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wet., Verh. (Tweede Secties), Dl. XLIII, No.3:5-69.

Lalou, C., Labeyrie, J., and Delebrias, G., 1966. Datations des calcaires coralliens de l’atoll de Mururoa (archipel des Tuamotus) de l’époque actuelle jusqu’à – 500,000 ans. Comptes Rendus Academie de Sciences, Paris, 263-D, 1946–1949.

MacNeil, F. S., 1972. Physical and biological aspects of atolls in the northern Marshalls. In Mukundan, C., and Pillai, C. S. G. (eds.), Proceedings First International Symposium of Corals and Coral Reefs. Mandapan Camp, India: Marine Biological Association of India, pp. 507–567.

McLean, R. F. and Woodroffe, C. D. (1994). Coral atolls. In Carter, R.W. G., and Woodroffe, C. D. (eds.), Coastal Evolution: Late Quaternary Shoreline Morphodynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 267–302.

Madden, H. C. R., Wilson, E. J. M., O'Shea, M., 2013. Modern fringing reef carbonates from equatorial SE Asia: An integrated environmental, sediment and satellite characterisation study. Marine Geology 344, 163-185.

Milsom, J., Ali, J., Sudarwono, 1999. Structure and collision history of the Buton continental fragment, Eastern Indonesia. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 83, 1666–1689.

Molengraaff, G. A. F., 1929. The coral reefs in the East Indian Archipelago, their distribution and mode of development. Proc. 4th Pan Pac. Sci. Congr., Java 1929, Vol. 2: 55-89.

Montaggioni, L. F., 2005. History of Indo-Pacific coral reef systems since the last glaciation: development patterns and controlling factors. Earth-Science Reviews, 71, 1–75.

Pranowo, W. S., Hendrajana, B., Tisiana, A. R., Widjanarko, E., Prihatno, H., Triwibowo, H., Mustikasari, E., Kisnarti, E. A., 2004. Physical ocanography. The Indonesian Wallacea Expedition 2004. The Agency for Marine and Coastal Research (BRKP), Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP).

Satyana A. H. and Purwaningsih, M. E. M., 2011. Collision of micro-continents with Eastern Sulawesi: records from uplifted reef terraces and proven-potential petroleum plays. Proceeding Indonesian Petroleum Association. 35th Annual Convention Proceedings, IPA11-G-219.

Schlanger, S. O., 1963. Subsurface geology of Eniwetok Atoll. United States Geological Survey. Professional Paper, 260-BB: pp. 991–1066.

Simandjuntak, T. O., 1980. Wasuponda Melanges. The 8th Ann. Meeting Ass.Indon. Geol. Jakarta.

Simandjuntak, T. O., 1986. Sedimentology and Tectonics of the Collision Complex in the East Arm of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Unpubl. PhD Thesis RHBNC University of London, UK.

Smith, R. B. and Silver, E. A., 1991. Geology of a Miocene collision complex, Buton, eastern Indonesia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 103, 660-678.

Stoddart, D. R., 1973. Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean. In Jones, O. A., and Endean, R. (eds.), Biology and Geology of Coral Reefs, I, Geology I. New York: Academic Press, pp. 51–92.

Sukamto, R., 1975. The structure of Sulawesi in the Light of Plate Tectonics. Paper presented in the Regional Conference of Geology and Mineral Resources, Southeast Asia, Jakarta.

Sukamto, R. and Simandjuntak, T. O., 1983. Tectonic relationship between geologic province of Western Sulawesi, Eastern Sulawesi and Banggai-Sula in the light of sedimentological aspects. Bull. Geol. Res. Dev. Center, 7, 1-12. Bandung.

Tomascik, T., Mah, A. J., Nontji, A., and Moosa, M. K., 1997. The ecology of Indonesian seas. Part 2, Periplus Editions.

Umbgrove, J. H. F., 1947. Coral reefs of the East Indies. Bulletin of the Geographic Society of America 58, 729–778.

van Bemmelen, R. W., 1949. The Geology of Indonesia, vol. 1a. Government Printing Office, The Hague (732 pp.).

Woodroffe, C. D. and Morrison, R. J., 2001. Reef-island accretion and soil development, Makin Island, Kiribati, central Pacific. Catena, 44, 245–261.

Wyrtki, K., 1961. Physical Oceanography of the Southeast Asian Waters. Naga Report Vol. 2. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Indexing Site :




Follow us on:

shopify visitor statistics
View My Stats