Magma Chamber Model of Batur Caldera, Bali, Indonesia: Compositional Variation of Two Facies, Large-Volume Dacitic Ignimbrites

Igan S. Sutawidjaja, Mega F. Rosana, K. Watanabe



Batur is one of the finest known calderas on Earth, and is the source of at least two major ignimbrite eruptions with a combined volume of some 84 km3 and 19 km3. These ignimbrites have a similar compositions, raising the question of whether they are geneticaly related. The Batur Ignimbrite-1 (BI-1) is crystal poor, containing rhyodacitic (68 - 70wt % SiO2), white to grey pumices and partly welded and unwelded. The overlying Batur Ignimbrite-2 (BI-2) is a homogeneous grey to black dacitic pumices (64 - 66 wt % SiO2), unwelded and densely welded (40 - 60% vesicularity), crystal and lithic rich. Phase equilibria indicate that the Batur magma equilibrated at temperatures of 1100 - 1300oC with melt water contents of 3 - 6 wt%. The post-eruptive Batur magma was cooler (<1100oC) and it is melt more water rich (> 6 wt % H2O). A pressure of 20 kbar is infered from mineral barometry for the Batur magma chamber. Magmatic chamber model is one in which crystals and melt separate from a convecting Batur magma by density differences, resulting in a stratified magma chamber with a homogeneous central zone, a crystal-rich accumulation zone near the walls or base, and a buoyant, melt-rich zone near the top. This is consistent with the estimated magma temperatures and densities: the pre-eruptive BI-1 magma was hoter (1300oC) and more volatile rich (6 wt % H2O) with density 2.25 g/cm3 than the BI-2 magma (1200oC; 4 wt % H2O) in density was higher (2.50 g/cm3). Batur melt characteristics and intensive parameters are consistent with a volatile oversaturation-driven eruption. However, the higher H2O content, high viscosity and low crystal content of the BI-1 magma imply an external eruption trigger.


Batur caldera; ignimbrite; rhyodacite; dacite; melting zone; magma chamber model


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